AKT=v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homologue; ERK=extracellular signal-regulated kinase; JAK=Janus kinase; MEK=mitogen-activated protein kinase; mTOR=mammalian target of rapamycin; NSCLC=non-small cell lung cancer; PI3K=phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase; RAF=rapidly accelerated fibrosarcoma kinase; Ras=rat sarcoma kinase; ROS1=ROS proto-oncogene 1; STAT=signal transducer and activator of transcription.
Genetic rearrangements in the tyrosine kinase receptor ROS1 lead to the development of fusion proteins2
For illustrative purposes.
Reprinted from NeuroRx, Vol 2/edition 1, Löscher W, Potschka H. Blood-brain barrier active efflux transporters: ATP-binding cassette gene family, 86-98, Copyright 2005, with permission from Elsevier.
BCRP=breast cancer resistance protein; CNS=central nervous system; MRP=multidrug resistance protein; NSCLC=non–small cell lung cancer; Pgp=P-glycoprotein; ROS1=ROS proto-oncogene 1.
A mechanism found across species that protects the brain from exposure to toxins, both exogenous and endogenous.
Fluorescence in situ hybridization infuses pieces of DNA with fluorescent dye and adds them to a tissue sample, which can then be analyzed to find specific genes on a chromosome, how many copies of the gene are present, and any chromosomal abnormalities.
Uses antibodies to detect the target protein on tissue sections.
A transporter protein that serves as an efflux pump to extrude substrates back into circulation after they initially diffuse into the endothelial cells in the brain capillary.
The ROS1 gene encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase in the insulin receptor superfamily. The role of ROS1 in normal development is not fully understood; however, genetic rearrangements of ROS1 have been identified in various cancer types and widely studied in non-small cell lung cancer.
Detects ROS1 by determining the presence of specific messenger RNA (mRNA) transcripts.
Transposition of 2 segments between nonhomologous chromosomes as a result of abnormal breakage and refusion of reciprocal segments.
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